The basis of any humic fertilizer is humic substances. There are humic acids, fulvic acids, salts of these acids (humates and fulvates) and humins, i.e. resistant compounds of humic and fulvic acids with soil minerals. The humic substances originate from biodegradation of plants (leaves, roots, branches), remains of animals, protein bodies of microorganisms. The conversion of organic residues in humic substances is called humification. In contrast to the living cell where organic substances are synthesized in accordance with the genetic code, humification has no set course giving the way to the compounds both simple and more complex than original biomolecules. The products formed are re-synthesized or decomposed, and this process is virtually endless. As a result of numerous reactions in the soils, peat, sapropel and coal, the humic substances accumulate. They are recognized as the first resistant form of organic carbon compounds outside of living organisms.

The scientists have found out that different humic substances, especially humic acids and their salts, can accelerate the plant growth and development. For example, when soaking seeds in the solution of humic fertilizer, the germination, energy and sprouting speed increase significantly. Moreover, the evidence proves that such seeds will have greater bioenergetic power in the next generation.

The key characteristics of humic acids are as follows:

  • accumulative;
  • transport;
  • physiological;
  • regulative;
  • protective.

Humic acids are appropriated by plants through rootage and leafs.